# Book Value Vs. Market Value: What’s the Difference?

## Book Value Vs. Market Value: What’s the Difference?

Intangible assets have value, just not in the same way that tangible assets do; you cannot easily liquidate them. By calculating tangible book value we might get a step closer to the baseline value of the company. It’s also a useful measure to compare a company with a lot of goodwill on the balance sheet to one without goodwill. A good measure of the value of a stockholder’s residual claim at any given point in time is the book value of equity per share (BVPS). Book value is the accounting value of the company’s assets less all claims senior to common equity (such as the company’s liabilities).

## Is book value per share important?

The book value per share is a market value ratio that weighs stockholders’ equity against shares outstanding. In other words, the value of all shares divided by the number of shares issued. Book value of an asset refers to the value of an asset when depreciation is accounted for.

For example, enterprise value would look at the market value of the company’s equity plus its debt, whereas book value per share only looks at the equity on the balance sheet. Conceptually, book value per share is similar to net worth, meaning it is assets minus debt, and may be looked at as though what would occur if operations were to cease. One must consider that the balance sheet may not reflect with certain accuracy, what would actually occur if a company did sell all of their assets.

To continue with the Walmart example, the value of goodwill on the balance sheet is \$20.6 billion (we are assuming the only intangible asset material to this analysis is goodwill). Again, we would want to examine the trend in the ratio over time and compare it to similar companies to assess relative value. In accounting, book value is the value of an asset according to its balance sheet account balance.

Book value and market value are two fundamentally different calculations that tell a story about a company’s overall financial strength. Comparing the book value to the market value of a company can also help investors determine whether a stock is overvalued or undervalued given its assets, liabilities, and its ability to generate income. However, with any financial metric, it’s important to recognize the limitations of book value and market value and use a combination of financial metrics whenanalyzing a company. When the market value is greater than the book value,the stock market is assigning a higher value to the company due to the earnings power of the company’s assets. Consistently profitable companies typically have market values greater than their book values because investors have confidence in the companies’ abilities to generate revenue growth and earnings growth.

Price to book value ratio measures whether or not a company’s stock price is undervalued. The higher the ratio, the higher the premium the market is willing to pay for the company above its hard assets. A company either is undervalued or in a declining business if the value of 1 or less.

In contrast to book value, the market price reflects the future growth potential of the company. The book value per share formula is used to calculate the per share value of a company based on its equity available to common shareholders.

Most commonly, book value is the value of an asset as it appears on the balance sheet. This is calculated by subtracting the accumulated depreciation from the cost of the asset. It is an established accounting practice that an asset is held based on its original costs, even if the market value of the asset has changed considerably since its purchase. Measuring book value is figured as the net asset value of a company calculated as total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities. To calculate tangible book value, we must subtract the balance sheet value of intangibles from common equity and then divide the result by shares outstanding.

## Concept of Book Value per Share

The book value per share is a market value ratio that weighs stockholders’ equity against shares outstanding. In other words, the value of all shares divided by the number of shares issued.

The P/B ratio compares a company’s market capitalization, or market value, to its book value. Specifically, it compares the company’s stock price to its book value per share (BVPS). The market capitalization (company’s value) is its share price multiplied by the number of outstanding shares.

Book value of an asset refers to the value of an asset when depreciation is accounted for. In business, net worth is also known as book value or shareholders’ equity. The value of a company’s equity equals the difference between the value of total assets and total liabilities. Note that the values on a company’s balance sheet highlight historical costs or book values, not current market values.

• Specifically, it compares the company’s stock price to its book value per share (BVPS).
• The P/B ratio compares a company’s market capitalization, or market value, to its book value.

The book value is the total assets – total liabilities and can be found in a company’s balance sheet. In other words, if a company liquidated all of its assets and paid off all its debt, the value remaining would be the company’s book value. The book value of a stock is theoretically the amount of money that would be paid to shareholders if the company was liquidated and paid off all of its liabilities. As a result, the book value equals the difference between a company’s total assets and total liabilities.

## Book Value of an Asset

For assets, the value is based on the original cost of the asset less any depreciation, amortization or impairment costs made against the asset. Traditionally, a company’s book value is its total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities. However, in practice, depending on the source of the calculation, book value may variably include goodwill, intangible assets, or both.

Analysts who do this on a regular basis are looking to see if the market value per share is beneath the book value per share. A corporation’s book value is used in fundamental financial analysis to help determine whether the market value of corporate shares is above or below the book value of corporate shares. Neither market value nor book value is an unbiased estimate of a corporation’s value. The corporation’s bookkeeping or accounting records do not generally reflect the market value of assets and liabilities, and the market or trade value of the corporation’s stock is subject to variations.

On the balance sheet, you’ll also find the accumulated depreciation of corporate assets, which aids in getting the most accurate outcome when it comes to book value per share. Put another way, book value per share rates the total shareholder’s equity of a stock in relation to the amount of shares outstanding.

Additionally, the book value is also available asshareholders’ equity on the balance sheet. Book value per share is just one of the methods for comparison in valuing of a company. Enterprise value, or firm value, market value, market capitalization, and other methods may be used in different circumstances or compared to one another for contrast.

Like any financial metric, the real utility comes from recognizing the advantages and limitations of book value and market value. An investor must determine when the book value or market value should be used and when it should be discounted or disregarded in favor of other meaningful parameters whenanalyzing a company. When book value is divided by the number of outstanding shares, we get the book value per share (BVPS) which can be used to make a per-share comparison. Outstanding shares refer to a company’s stock currently held by all its shareholders, including share blocks held by institutional investors and restricted shares. Deriving the book value of a company is straightforward since companies report total assets and total liabilities on their balance sheet on a quarterly and annual basis.

## General Motors Co Book Value per Share

The value inherent in its workforce, part of the intellectual capital of a company, is always ignored. When intangible assets and goodwill are explicitly excluded, the metric is often specified to be “tangible book value”. The book value per share may be used by some investors to determine the equity in a company relative to the market value of the company, which is the price of its stock. For example, a company that is currently trading for \$20 but has a book value of \$10 is selling at twice its equity. This example is referred to as price to book value (P/B), in which book value per share is used in the denominator.

In other words, the book value is literally the value of the company according to its books (balance sheet) once all liabilities are subtracted from assets. Savvy investors are always on the lookout for stocks that are not fully valued or, still better, are grossly undervalued. An important measure of value is the book value per share-total assets minus intangible assets and liabilities divided by the number of outstanding shares. If the price-tobook value per share is less than one, it means the stock is trading below its book value.

## Use of Book Value per Share

A company’s book value is determined by the difference between total assets and the sum of liabilities and intangible assets, such as patents. An even better approach is to assess a company’s tangible book value per share (TBVPS). Tangible book value is the same thing as book value except it excludes the value of intangible assets. Intangible assets, such as goodwill, are assets that you can’t see or touch.

### What is a good book value per share?

The book value per share is a market value ratio that weighs stockholders’ equity against shares outstanding. In other words, the value of all shares divided by the number of shares issued. Book value of an asset refers to the value of an asset when depreciation is accounted for.

The term “book value” is a company’s assets minus its liabilities and is sometimes referred to as stockholder’s equity, owner’s equity, shareholder’s equity, or simply equity. This is an important investing figure and helps reveal whether stocks are under- or over-priced.