Definition of Debtor

Definition of Debtor

For accounting purposes, customers/suppliers are referred to as debtors/creditors. A debtor can be an entity, a company or a person of a legal nature that owes money to someone else – your business, for example. To put it simply, the debtor-creditor relationship is complementary to the customer-supplier relationship.

Generally speaking, a debtor is a customer who has purchased a good or service and therefore owes the supplier payment in return. Therefore, on a fundamental level, almost all companies and people will be debtors at one time or another.

What is a creditor?

A debtor is the opposite of a creditor – it refers to the person or entity who owes money. When that card user (debtor) spends money on that credit card, they are now essentially borrowing money from the credit card company (creditor)to pay for services or goods.

‘Debtor’ does not only refer to a customer of goods and services, but also to someone who has borrowed money from a bank or a lender. If you take out a loan to buy your house for example, then you as the homeowner are a debtor, while the bank holding your mortgage is considered the creditor.

Since the 1971 Nixon Shock, debt creation and the creation of money increasingly took place at once. This simultaneous creation of money and debt occurs as a feature of fractional reserve banking. After a commercial bank approves a loan, it is able to create the corresponding amount of money, which is then acquired by the borrower along with a similar amount of debt.

Managing the day-to-day operating cash cycle is important for every business, since it ensures a profitable operation. If a business pays its creditors before it receives payment from its debtors, then short term working capital constraints need to be resolved. It is important to recognise the trade debtors and trade creditors in a cash flow financial model because they capture the cash cycle of a company. This is important since not all revenue earned in a given period is received in the same period, and that not all costs are paid as soon as they are incurred. The term creditor can mean different things depending on the situation, but it typically means a financial institution or person who is owed money.

Accounting terms

This could be interest on bank loan repayments or credit card payments. Once cash has been properly considered, the other important part of the balance sheet for business owners is the company’s debt position and in particular the value and status of any loans provided to the business. Working capital comprises trade debtors (the amount owed to the company by clients), trade creditors (the amount owed by the company to suppliers) and stock. If a debtor has an outstanding payment that has passed the due date and/or the standard payment window (30 days in the UK), there are a number of steps that a creditor (an individual or a business) can take in order to collect the money owed.


For this scenario the credit card company charge 5% interest on each loan, meaning the debtor would pay 5% interest on the outstanding balance until it’s cleared. A creditor is a term used in accounting to describe an entity (can either be a person, organisation or a government body) that is owed money, as they have provided goods or services to another entity. Sometimes, this entity will charge interest on money borrowed as a way to make money.

However, doing so comes at a great cost to the lender, and, for this reason, unsecured debt generally comes with a higher interest rate. Some examples of unsecured debt include credit cards, signature loans, gym membership contracts, and medical bills.

if they are parties who don’t use bills/invoices but for e.g. just keep your running balance record with them (like some small stores do) you can in tally set the ‘Maintain Bill-by-Bill’ option to NO for these kind of parties. But generally advocates of debt forgiveness simply point out that debts are too high in relation to the debtors’ ability to repay; they don’t make reference to a debt-based theory of money. Exceptions include David Graeber, who from a radical perspective, has used credit theories of money to argue against recent trends to strengthen the enforcement of debt collection, such as greater use of custodial sentences against debtors in the US. He also argued against the over-zealous application of the view that paying one’s debts is central to morality, and has proposed the enactment of a biblical style Jubilee where debts will be cancelled for all. Economics commentator Philip Coggan holds that the world’s current monetary system became debt-based after the Nixon Shock, in which President Nixon suspended the link between money and gold in 1971.

What do you mean by debtor?

A debtor is an person, company or organization who owes money. Debtors are usually people, organizations or companies that have borrowed money in some form. If someone took a loan from a financial institution, the debtor is normally referred to as a borrower. Good debt therefore would be college loans or mortgages.

  • A Quantity Theory of Credit was proposed in 1992 by Richard Werner, whereby credit creation is disaggregated into credit for GDP and non-GDP (financial circulation).
  • The approach is tested empirically in a general-to-specific econometric time series model and found to be superior to alternative and traditional theories.

Depending on the terms of the agreement, the creditor may be able to repossess an asset used as collateral (like a car), garnish a debtor’s wages, or try to get at least partial payment from the debtor through a court order if the debtor is unable to repay as agreed. so that means that you can group all large and small parties under sundry debtors and creditors.

Who is a debtor and a creditor?

A debtor is a person or enterprise that owes money to another party. The party to whom the money is owed might be a supplier, bank, or other lender who is referred to as the creditor.

Based on this, Werner developed a new approach to macroeconomics, which integrates the nature of banks as money creators in macroeconomics – usually ignored in conventional macroeconomics. Werner’s approach is based on the scientific research methodology (the inductive method), not the axiomatic-hypothetical deductive approach commonly used in macroeconomics, which assumes away the existence of banks or market rationing. Hence in his approach markets are not expected to be in equilibrium, but the short side principle applies, which emphasises the power of banks in making decisions about the amount and allocation of credit created and distributed in the economy.

You could end up having an outstanding balance if you took out a loan or line of credit, and the person or entity that owes the money may be known as the debtor. sundry debtors and creditors Groups in Tally ERP 9 have been programmed to behave just the same for small debtors/creditors (i.e. sundry) and for large debtors/creditors (those parties who are big enough to be assigned individual accounts).

both these groups are sub-groups of current assets as you must be knowing (create a ledger for sundry debtors and you will see that when you select sundry debtors it will show current assets with it as main group). When a lender makes a loan with no asset held as collateral, it does so only on the faith in the borrower’s ability and promise to repay the loan. The borrower is bound by a contractual agreement to repay the funds, and if there is a default, the lender can go to court to reclaim any money owed.

A Quantity Theory of Credit was proposed in 1992 by Richard Werner, whereby credit creation is disaggregated into credit for GDP and non-GDP (financial circulation). The approach is tested empirically in a general-to-specific econometric time series model and found to be superior to alternative and traditional theories. According to Werner bank credit creation for GDP transactions Granger-causes nominal GDP growth, while credit creation for financial transactions explains asset prices and banking crises.

Of the financial statements, the balance sheet is stated as of the end of the reporting period, while the income statement and statement of cash flows cover the entire reporting period. As debtors means the one from whom the money is to be collected or the people who owe money to us as they were given benefit from us (example credit sales) are termed as debtors. So as money is to be collected in future that means cash benefit is to be taken from them, that’s why debtors are shown on assets side of balance sheet.

Definition of Debtor

While a creditor is shown as a liability in the balance sheet of a firm a debtor is shown as an asset in the balance sheet till the time he pays off the loan. A debtor can be defined as the individual or firm who receives the benefit without paying for it in terms of money or money’s worth immediately but is liable to pay the money back in due course of time.

A creditor is the one who lends the money whereas a debtor is the one who owes the money to the creditor. To ensure the smooth flow of the working capital cycle a company must keep a track of the time lag between the receipt of payment from the debtors and the payment of money to the creditors. The balance sheet is a report that summarizes all of an entity’s assets, liabilities, and equity as of a given point in time. It is typically used by lenders, investors, and creditors to estimate the liquidity of a business. The balance sheet is one of the documents included in an entity’s financial statements.

If a debtor fails to pay a debt, creditors have some recourse to collect it. If the debt is backed by collateral, such as mortgages and car loans being backed by houses and cars, respectively, the creditor can attempt to repossess the collateral. In other cases, the creditor may take the debtor to court in an attempt to have the debtor’s wages garnished or to secure another type of repayment order. A term used in accounting, ‘creditor’ refers to the party that has delivered a product, service or loan, and is owed money by one or more debtors.

The role of banks as creators of both the credit and the money supply has since been empirically demonstrated by Werner in widely-noted finance journal publications. A particular business transaction has two parties involved- creditor and debtor.

However Coggan also says that the excessive debt which can be built up under a debt-based monetary system can end up hurting all sections of society, including debtors. A lender supplies you with the cash necessary to purchase it but also places a lien, or claim of ownership, on the vehicle’s title. In the event the car buyer fails to make payments, the lender can repossess the car and sell it to recoup the funds. Secured loans like this have a fairly reasonable interest rate, which is generally based on creditworthiness and the value of the collateral.