# How to Calculate Amortization: 9 Steps

## How to Calculate Amortization: 9 Steps

The two main distinctions between assets on the balance sheet are current and non-current assets. As stated earlier, current assets are assets used in the short-term. Current assets on the balance sheet contain all of the assets that are likely to be converted into cash within one year. Companies rely on their current assets to fund ongoing operations and pay current expenses. Current assets include cash, inventory, andaccounts receivables.

This is a \$20,000 five-year loan charging 5% interest (with monthly payments). To calculate amortization, start by dividing the loan’s interest rate by 12 to find the monthly interest rate. Then, multiply the monthly interest rate by the principal amount to find the first month’s interest. Next, subtract the first month’s interest from the monthly payment to find the principal payment amount. Once you’ve done that, repeat the process for the second-month loan payment.

## What is the journal entry for Accumulated Amortization as an opening balance? How about for Amortization Expense opening balance? Is it negative?

Then, the lender subtracts the amount of interest owed from the monthly payment to determine how much of the payment goes toward principal. Capitalized property, plant, and equipment (PP&E) are also included in long-term assets, except for the portion designated to be expensed or depreciated in the current year. Capitalized assets are long-term operating assets that are useful for more than one period. Firms do not have to deduct the entire cost of the asset from net income in the year it is purchased if it will give value for more than one year.

In company record-keeping, before amortization can occur, the purchase of the asset must be recorded. The cost of the asset is entered in a balance sheet account, with the offsetting entry to the account representing the method of payment, such as cash or notes payable. The company determines the useful life of the asset and divides the purchase amount by the number of accounting periods occurring during that life.

Amortization is the process of spreading out a loan (such as a home loan or auto loans) into a series of fixed payments. While each monthly payment remains the same, the payment is made up of parts that change over time. A portion of each payment goes towards interest costs (what your lendergets paid for the loan) and reducing your loan balance (also known as paying off the loan principal).

## Is Accumulated Depreciation a Current Asset?

Amortization refers to the reduction of a debt over time by paying the same amount each period, usually monthly. With amortization, the payment amount consists of both principal repayment and interest on the debt. As more principal is repaid, less interest is due on the principal balance. Over time, the interest portion of each monthly payment declines and the principal repayment portion increases. Amortization is an accounting technique used to periodically lower the book value of a loan or intangible asset over a set period of time.

If a company’s operating cycle is longer than one year, the length of the operating cycle is used in place of the one-year time period. The accounting for amortization expense is a debit to the amortization expense account and a credit to the accumulated amortization account. The accumulated amortization account appears on the balance sheet as a contra account, and is paired with and positioned after the intangible assets line item. In some balance sheets, it may be aggregated with the accumulated depreciation line item, so only the net balance is reported. It is not common to report accumulated amortization as a separate line item on the balance sheet.

## What’s the Difference Between Amortization and Depreciation in Accounting?

With each subsequent payment, a greater percentage of the payment goes toward the loan’s principal. Amortization can be calculated using most modern financial calculators, spreadsheet software packages such as Microsoft Excel, or online amortization charts. A business records the cost of an intangible asset in the assets section of its balance sheet only when it purchases it from another party and the asset has a finite life. The company transfers a portion of the asset’s cost from the balance sheet to an expense on the income statement each accounting period.

This amortization process reduces a company’s assets and stockholders’ equity on its balance sheet. Sometimes it’s helpful toseethe numbers instead of reading about the process. The table below is known asan amortization table(or amortizationschedule) and demonstrates how each payment affects the loan, how much you pay in interest, and how much you owe on the loan at any given time. This amortization schedule is for the beginning and end of an auto loan.

Current assets include cash and assets that are expected to turn to cash within one year of the balance sheet date. Current assets also include prepaid expenses that will be used up within one year.

It does this instead of recording the entire cost as an expense on its income statement at the time of purchase. For monthly payments, the interest payment is calculated by multiplying the interest rate by the outstanding loan balance and dividing by twelve. The amount of principal due in a given month is the total monthly payment (a flat amount) minus the interest payment for that month. The next month, the outstanding loan balance is calculated as the previous month’s outstanding balance minus the most recent principal payment. The interest payment is once again calculated off the new outstanding balance, and the pattern continues until all principal payments have been made and the loan balance is zero at the end of the loan term.

• As more principal is repaid, less interest is due on the principal balance.
• Amortization refers to the reduction of a debt over time by paying the same amount each period, usually monthly.
• With amortization, the payment amount consists of both principal repayment and interest on the debt.

An amortizing loan is a type of debt that requires regular monthly payments. Each month, a portion of the payment goes toward the loan’s principal and part of it goes toward interest.

Personal loansthat you get from a bank, credit union,or online lenderare generally amortized loans as well. They often have three-year terms, fixed interest rates, and fixed monthly payments. These loans are often used for small projectsor debt consolidation. To calculate the amount of interest owed, the lender will take the current loan balance and multiple it by the applicable interest rate.

## Amortization expense

Finally, subtract the principal amount paid in the first month from the principal amount paid in the second month to calculate the amortization. Loans that amortize, such as your home mortgage or car loan, require a monthly payment. As a result, you need to compute the interest and principal portion of each payment on a monthly basis.

Amortization can refer to the process of paying off debt over time in regular installments of interest and principal sufficient to repay the loan in full by its maturity date. With mortgage and auto loan payments, a higher percentage of the flat monthly payment goes toward interest early in the loan.

For example, a company purchases a patent for \$120,000 and determines its useful life to be 10 years. The annual amortization expenses will be \$12,000, or \$1,000 a month if you are recording amortization expenses monthly. Amortization expense is an income statement account affecting profit and loss. The offsetting entry is a balance sheet account, accumulated amortization, which is a contra account that nets against the amortized asset.

First, amortization is used in the process of paying off debt through regular principal and interest payments over time. An amortization schedule is used to reduce the current balance on a loan, for example a mortgage or car loan, through installment payments. Second, amortization can also refer to the spreading out of capital expenses related to intangible assets over a specific duration – usually over the asset’s useful life – for accounting and tax purposes.

Changes in long-term assets can be a sign of capital investment or liquidation. If a company is investing in its long-term health, it will likely use the capital for asset purchases designed to drive earnings in the long-term.

### How do you record accumulated amortization?

Accumulated amortization is the cumulative amount of all amortization expense that has been charged against an intangible asset. The concept can also be intended to apply to all amortization that has been charged to-date against a group of intangible assets.

Long-term assets are listed on the balance sheet, which provides a snapshot in time of the company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholder equity. The balance sheet equation is “assets equals liabilities plus shareholder’s equity” because a company can only fund the purchase of assets with capital from debt and shareholder’s equity.

And, you record the portions of the cost as amortization expenses in your books. Amortization reduces your taxable income throughout an asset’s lifespan. Your last loan payment will pay off the final amount remaining on your debt. For example, after exactly 30 years (or 360 monthly payments) you’ll pay off a 30-year mortgage. Amortization tables help you understand how a loan works, and they can help you predict your outstanding balance or interest cost at any point in the future.

In much the same way that they depreciate physical property, companies use amortization to spread out the cost of an intangible asset that has a fixed useful life over the asset’s life. This method of recovering company capital is quite similar to the straight-line method of depreciation seen with physical assets. The alternative would be to absorb the full cost of the asset in a single accounting period, which would make profits for the period seem smaller and would violate the concept of matching expenses and revenue. In accounting, the amortization of intangible assets refers to distributing the cost of an intangible asset over time. You pay installments using a fixed amortization schedule throughout a designated period.

More typical presentations are to include accumulated amortization in the accumulated depreciation line item, or to present intangible assets net of accumulated amortization on a single line item. Also known as an installment loan, fully amortized loans have equal monthly payments. Partially amortized loans also have payment installments, but either at the beginning or at the end of the loan, a balloon payment is made. Long-term assets are investments that can require large amounts of capital and as a result, can increase a company’s debt or drain their cash.

A business uses amortization to spread the cost of an intangible asset over its useful life, or the life of the intangible asset in the business. An intangible asset is one without a physical presence, such as a patent.